Food Fats and Oils
Tenth Edition


This publication has been prepared to provide useful information to the public regarding the nutritive and functional values of fats in the diet, the composition of fats and answers to the most frequently asked questions about fats and oils. It is intended for use by consumers, nutritionists, dieticians, physicians, food technologists, food industry representatives, students, teachers, and others having an interest in dietary fats and oils. A glossary is also provided.

Prepared by the
Technical Committee of the Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, Inc.
Dennis Strayer, Bunge Oils, Chairman

ISEO Member Companies include:

Archer Daniels Midland
Ag Processing, Inc.
Bunge Oils
J. G. Boswell Company
California Oils
Cargill, Inc.
CHS, Inc.
Coast Packing Company
ConAgra Foods
Fuji Vegetable Oils
IOI/Loders Croklaan
Ed Miniat, Inc./South Chicago Packing
J. M. Smucker Company
Riceland Foods, Inc.
Team Foods USA
Ventura Foods, Inc.
Wilmar Oleo North America
South Dakota Soybean Processors
Zeeland Food Services, Inc.

First edition -- 1957
Second edition -- 1963
Third edition -- 1968
Fourth edition -- 1974
Fifth edition -- 1982
Sixth edition -- 1988
Seventh edition -- 1994
Eighth edition -- 1999
Ninth edition -- 2006

© 2016
Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, Inc.
1319 F Street NW, Suite 600
Washington, DC 20004

Table of Contents


I. Importance of Fats and Oils
II. What is a Fat or Oil?
III. Chemical Composition of Fats

A. The Major Component - Triglycerides
B. The Minor Components

1. Mono- and Diglycerides
2. Free Fatty Acids
3. Phosphatides
4. Sterols
5. Tocopherols and Tocotrienols
6. Pigments
7. Fatty Alcohols

IV. Fatty Acids

A. General
B. Classification of Fatty Acids

1. Saturated Fatty Acids
2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
3. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

C. Isomerism of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

1. Geometric Isomerism
2. Positional Isomerism

V. Factors Affecting Physical Characteristics of Fats and Oils

A. Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids
B. Length of Carbon Chains in Fatty Acids
C. Isomeric Forms of Fatty Acids
D. Molecular Configuration of Triglycerides
E. Polymorphism of Fats

VI. Processing

A. General
B. Degumming
C. Refining/Neutralization
D. Bleaching
E. Deodorization
F. Fractionation (Including Winterization)
G. Hydrogenation
H. Interesterification
I. Esterification
J. Additives and Processing Aids
K. Emulsifiers
L. Blending

VII. Health Aspects of Fats and Oils

This Chapter is Under Construction

VIII. Reactions of Fats and Oils

A. Hydrolysis of Fats
B. Oxidation of Fats

1. Autoxidation
2. Oxidation at Higher Temperatures

C. Polymerization of Fats
D. Reactions during Heating and Cooking

IX. Products Prepared from Fats and Oils

A. General
B. Salad and Cooking Oils
C. Shortenings (Baking and Frying Fats)
D. Cocoa Butter and Butterfat Alternatives (Hard Butters)
E. Margarine and Spreads
F. Butter
G. Dressings for Food

X. Conclusion


Common Test Methods and Related Terms



Copyright © 2016 Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils